The Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute KNMI) was established in 1854. It is a government agency operating under the responsibility of the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment. It is an operational institute that provides weather observations, weather forecasts and vital weather information all year round, 24 hours a day, and 7 days a week. The institute carries out applied and fundamental research in support of its operational tasks and as a global change research centre. The institute has three main departments: Weather, Climate and Seismology, and Infrastructure. It employs approximately 450 permanent staff.
As an operational meteorological data centre and research institute in one, KNMI combines international contacts and co-operation projects in a practical sense. KNMI is an active member of such large international organisations as the World Meteorological Organisation, the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts and the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites.
Remote sensing is of great importance to the KNMI. For weather forecasting and for research and development activities satellite observations provide a valuable complement to in-situ measurements. These data are applied in the first place for KNMI’s own operational meteorological and research tasks but KNMI also provides earth observation products and related services as an aid to the exertion of public tasks. Furthermore, data and value added products are provided for national and international environment and climate change programmes. KNMI is involved in national and international studies concerning user aspects of earth observation data.
Relevant to this project is KNMI’s climate research department, which aims at monitoring, modelling, and understanding climate change. The relevant division for satellite research of atmospheric composition is the Climate Observations Division. In this division there is much experience with in-flight calibration and retrieval and validation of trace gases, clouds, and aerosols from GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2. Activities include the study of atmospheric composition; global ozone monitoring; study of effects of clouds on trace gas retrievals; coordination of the SCIAMACHY validation; delivery of operational satellite data products to users (TEMIS); principal investigatorship for OMI, and TROPOMI.
The main tasks of KNMI are mainly:
(1) Over-all project management
(2) Research activities: retrieval of tropospheric ozone, providing emission estimates of NOx and SO2 and modelling and forecasting of air quality for East-China.
(3) Dissemination of the project data